Fluorescence – general descriptionCompounds emitting fluorescence are called fluourophores or fluorochromes. When a fluorophore absorbs light, energy is taken up for the excitation of electrons to higher energy states. The process of absorption is rapid and is immediately followed by a return to lower energy states, which is accompanied by an emission of light, observed as fluorescence. Absorption and emission of light of various fluorophores may take place at different regions of the light spectrum.
For the commonly used fluorophore, fluorescein (FITC), used in biotechnology, its excitation wavelength is 490 nm – the blue region of the visible spectrum, and emits fluorescence at 520 nm, which is in the green-yellow region. FITC is used as a label for DNA and other compounds, and has been employed as a tracer to evaluate pesticide affects on various crops. Another widely known fluorophore in histology is known as Acridine Orange (AO). This unique substance will absorb light at 490 nm and emit fluorescence at 530nm and 640 nm, yellow-green and red-orange respectively. Depending on the concentration of the fluorophore, the pH (Hydrogen ion concentration) and other factors in the experimental conditions, in which AO is used, determines what color the stained or labeled substances will fluoresce.
Fluorescence FadingDecrease in fluorescence during irradiation with light is called fading. The degree of fading depends on the intensity of the excitation light, the degree of absorption by the fluorophore of the exciting light and the exposure time. Reduction in fluorescence intensity can also be due to modification in the excited states of the fluorophore. These physiochemical changes may be caused by other fluorophores, oxidizing agents, salts or heavy metals. This phenomenon is called quenching.
Some fluorophores, such as the aforementioned Acridine Orange will fluoresce different colors at different pHÕs and concentrations. An interesting example of this particularly unique fluorophore is that at low pH (acidic), stained cell nuclei by AO appear red, and shift to yellow green at pH 6.8-8.0 (neutral to slightly basic).
There are other substances that will fluoresce only under certain chemical conditions. This means that they require a specific chemical reaction to achieve the ability to absorb and emit light as a fluorophore. This phenomenon is known as chemiluminescence. A naturally occurring chemiluminescent substance found in fireflies is luciferase. Luciferase is a biological enzyme that needs the substrate hydrogen peroxide to complete the biochemical reaction in the enzyme to yield an enzyme-substrate complex, which will emit fluorescence in the blue-lavender region.
Another example of chemiluminescence is in the case of the element phosphorus. The production of light is caused by a chemical reaction with oxygen.
Common Uses for Fluorometric CompoundsThe most common use for fluorometric compounds are for fluorescence labeling of substances such as DNA, enzymes, and antibodies in immunology, medical diagnostics and biotechnology. They are also employed as cytochemical stains fluorescent probes and markers in histology. Fluorophores are excellent for the detection of trace metal and pesticide analysis. Industrial uses include addition of optical brighteners to cotton and wool fiber technology, optical whiteners in soaps and detergents and in the manufacture of paper products.
Types of Substances Likely to FluoresceSubstances likely to fluoresce are aromatic compounds having alternate single and double bonds in an unbroken sequence. Most aromatic (cyclic) compounds are fluorescent and many aliphatic (long chains, not cyclic) are not. ( See diagram of FITC analog Vs aliphatic compound ) Many petroleum oils and other oils and fats show a significant fluorescence. Many organic compounds which show only a slight fluorescence under normal conditions may fluoresce intensely at low temperatures or if combined with metal ions such as aluminum (Al 3+ ) to form chelates. This is one reason why fluorescence is a quantitative method for trace metal analysis.
There are some naturally occurring minerals such as fluorospar, which produces a blue-white fluorescence. Other minerals which fluoresce are barite, willemite and of course the element phosphorus. For a more detailed description of classes of compounds that fluoresce, refer to Table 9.1. For detailed lists and tables of fluorescent probes used in modern cell and molecular biology, refer to (Kasten)
Fluorescence Found on AbducteesThe primary fluorescence found on abductees is in the brilliant yellow-green region of the visible spectrum. A commercially obtained hand held UV Backlight was used to visualize fluorescence found on various body sites of abductees. These sites include: the arm, forearm, shoulder, behind ear, breasts, back of calves, hands, chin, chest, vaginal opening, pubic hair, dog hair, and also inside the mouth and on the tongue itself. Most fluorescence is subdermal, although occasionally some fluorescence spots could be wiped away, yet most is retained within the skin suggesting an external application and diffusion mechanism through the dermal layers.
Less common types of fluorescence emit in the red-pink (hot pink) region and are found primarily on the hands, fingers, palms and neck region of abductees. These abductees report handling and cuddling of infant alien/human hybrid creatures. This is also subdermal. Less common fluorescence is white, light blue and lavender. White has been found in the mouth and oral mucous membranes and tongue. Lavender fluorescence has been found on the forearm. All fluorescence was visualized using a simple commercially available UV(A) hand held black light in a darkened enclosed area. Most fluorescence faded anywhere between 1 and 4 days. (See chart of fluorescence findings.)
DiscussionFrom this data alone, one could surmise that much of the fluorescence found on the abductees is a substance that has the ability to diffuse from an external source (i.e., alleged alien skin and instrument surfaces) to the dermal layers of the recipient. This suggests a diffusion mechanism whereby the fluorescent substance contains a chemical group or moiety that is lipid like or lipophilic, or possibly solvent like such as DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) in its ability to leach into subdermal tissues.
The irregular splotching suggests casual handling by the alleged alien entities, as if the fluorescence were due to a naturally occurring component or oily substance on the alien skin. It could be transmitted much like oil from the human skin, yet with unique fluorescent properties.
The design marks found on some abductees are also fluorescent, yet it is unknown as to the reason for these Markings and how they are applied to the particular body site. In one case, fluorescent splatter marks (green-yellow) were discovered on top of a woman’s foot, which was both subdermal and topical, of which some was able to be wiped away. This abductee remembers something dropping and landing on top of her foot, as if by accident during the abduction scenario. This suggests the use of some unknown liquid by the aliens, which is fluorescent. In another case, an abductee had a dime sized yellow green fluorescent subdermal marking on the palm. When this palm was rigorously massaged, the fluorescence diffused into a wider area of the palm, and even into the fingers. One subject had a green/yellow marking that resembled a fractal pattern, which the aliens told her, is a special marking denoting a type of rank in a hierarchy. Such deliberate fluorescent marks could be a fluorescent marker such as fluorescein (FITC) which is a very common fluorophore used in the Bio-medical industry today.
It is uncertain whether fluorometric substances such as fluorescent probes, markers and labels are intentionally utilized by the Abductors, as is commonly used in current biotechnology and medical applications. Because most of the fluorescence is found as irregular splotching all over the body, it appears that it could be due to alien – human handling via direct skin contact.
If fluorescence is a unique characteristic of aliens, their instruments and the substances they utilize (i.e., on abductees, or on their craft) perhaps it is a result of repeated interdimensional shifts and changes in electronic energy states due to subjection of high energy radiation, or some form of high energy states. Abductees have observed the appearing and disappearing of entities, their craft, and have reported experiencing a form of instantaneous materialization of their bodies from one location to another during the abduction process. They also have reported floating through walls, windows and other buildings while with the aliens. The mechanism or technology responsible for this type of phenomenon is unclear.
In order to determine nature, origin and chemical make-up of these fluorometric substances found on abductees it is important to rule out any obvious factors such as fluorescence due to contamination by laundry detergents (optical whiteners and brighteners), dog or cat urine, and fluorescent cosmetic petroleum based compounds used on the skin, or if the abductee works in an environment where fluorometric compounds are employed (i.e., in a biotechnology lab). After these questions have been ruled out, a qualitative analysis of the skin samples containing the fluorophore should be analyzed by a qualified laboratory using the instrumentation necessary for such analysis.
Misc. Notes (From experiencers)#1
What is interesting though, Eve, was this was not present during the first encounter in the grove. Just during the second one in the living room I saw this same-exact mint-green color during Hurricane Andrew. The skies that night were lit up in this eerie color – the clouds glowing in this florescent green. I remember the lightning streaking across the skies was mint green color too. I associate the color with *electricity* – some kind of electrical ion charge. Plus, you have to remember, during a hurricane the atmosphere changes. The barometric pressure does a radical change. And, I also have something else interesting to add: If you recall I said the ET running through the grove ran as if he had some kind of weightlessness quality – I went on to compare it to how the astronaut moves in space, with one exception, and that is the ET had more control over his body. This would mean – if I am correct in assuming this is a weightlessness – which the place the ET comes from has a heavier atmosphere than we do. When you think of *heavier* gravity, one thinks of dense atmosphere. In the tropical jungles after a rainfall, the steam actually rises from the ground – the air is very thick and humid and dense.
I have a book sent to me by a NASA scientist who is working on the anti-gravity theory. This book is about the famous Bermuda Triangle off the coast of Florida. There are several accounts in it whereby people witnessed this *green cloud like gas or dew* appearing in a large area. So thick, one can not see through it. This is when the instruments on the planes or boats go haywire.
Hope this is of some help to you ….
Anonymous experiencer discussion on fluorescence, odd lights#2
I have seen a kind of grayish white fog or mist that lingers around the house the morning after an abduction. If forms a layer on the floor about six inches thick and swirls as you walk through it.
Did you ever get a picture of that or a sample? That’s interesting how it lingers. Can others see it? I’ve not heard of that before. I have seen the filmy white things that someone mentioned, maybe it was ****? I generally see those beforehand so I don’t think that’s the same as what you’re talking about.
I have seen that green mottled mass you speak of. It was after the incubus experience I had years ago. I wonder what species of alien forms that mass….. curious…
I only remember the greys so it must have been their stuff. Another thing they use leaves a red glow, similar to the green only it appears to be a solid color fading towards the edges, that is it’s never mottled in appearance. It can appear anywhere in the room, not just high up and be big or small in size (the green is generally always the same size). My husband walked through one without noticing it one morning. I gasped in horror but nothing happened to him. I was fully awake at the time. I can only assume it’s not a real “thing” but something having to do with my perception because he wasn’t aware of its presence.
I have also seen them use a basketball-sized ball of light. It followed us around then when I was returned to my bed it remained behind for a few seconds after they left. A lot of people have seen those things. Most I’ve talked to about it think they’re alive. My impression was that it was a device of some kind. Of course, it could still have been alive. (My husband was sound asleep for that one.)
While we’re on the subject, there’s the Tinkerbells I call them, little lights that dart happily around (unnoticed by my husband as is basically everything I’m talking about) and the energy swirls and the things you see darting about out of the corners of your eyes and the “shadows” of people (usually short!) who aren’t really there. What is this stuff? Does anyone know? It makes you think you’re nuts! Funny how you get used to it. It used to scare me, especially that sense of presence that you get along with it. Now I just think, “Oh what is it now?” and get frustrated because it’s been going on for so long and I can never figure it out, what it is, you know. There’s just so many different things that go on.
I’ve also seen the greenish haze. They must go through the roof because when I’ve seen it it was up over my head as I was lying in bed after a suspected encounter. It usually looks like a small, oval, luminous cloud of a mottled kelly green and it only lasts a couple of seconds before it disappears.
Someone told me that if you have a lot of mirrors in the room (or glass, like in picture frames) and you have your wits about you to look fast enough you can see an image of what just happened. I’ve never been able to verify that.
#4 ( Passing through walls)
Yes, we CAN pass our body through a solid substance IF our particles are “adjusted.”!
TunnelingAn observed effect of the ability of certain atomic particles to pass through a barrier that they cannot pass over because of the required energy level, based on a law of quantum mechanics that predicts that the particles have a finite probability for tunneling according to their quantum-mechanical nature.
#5 George filer report
SILVER FLOURESCENCE OR GLOW MARKS**** **** writes that she had glow marks on her arm that were about three inches long and a magic marker wide. Under a magnifying glass the mark looked like a zipper. She also had a similar mark on her thigh. There was a similar cluster of marks on the bottom of her feet. Donna states, “My feet had been cut and connected back together some how. Some of the areas were coming apart. My husband didn’t take seeing this too well and I was worried, because the seams were coming apart. My physician started doing laser surgery and he told me that there is glowing, but that this glowing can be wiped off. He also said that there is different type of laser surgery.
Eve Frances Lorgen writes:Have any results come back from the silver Powder analysis? Did this material leech into the skin subdermally? Were any other colors of fluorescence observed post abduction? Check the person periodically for fluorescence even if she does not think she is been abducted. Also, was this silver material found anywhere else like on bedroom furniture? It makes me wonder what kinds of chemical and even quantum energetic modifications can take place when the abductee is transferred through walls or glass. In two cases a different kind of fluorescence (light green and greenish yellow) was observed right before or as the aliens entered. In one case the
fluorescence was like a smoke or gas running through the ceiling downward, as if responding to gravity and the wall surface as smoke would. In the other case the residue was seen resin above the floor about six inches, yet staying low to the ground before finally dissolving and disappearing. This occurred as the aliens just arrived. Other fluorescence is subdermal on abductees’ bodies, sometimes in designs or brand marks, or where aliens handled them. I think there are several etiologies with this. The silver stuff you observed is different from ours.
#6 ( From a research associate regarding fluorescence uses)
Synergism in the research program.
The research program has three interwoven themes. One is to build a better understanding of the structural features such as local interactions, environment, and dynamics which influence the variety of fluorescence parameters arising from aromatic amino acids. This information content has been significantly increased measuring the fluorescence decay from single crystals of proteins.
The second aspect is the investigation of different proteins and the elucidation of features which describe their specific functionality. An important aspect of this work is to prepare mutants having a single tryptophan located in different segments of the protein by site directed mutagenesis. Hence changes occurring in the different segments associated with the protein function can be mapped out. One protein of interest is the enzyme tryptophanyl t-RNA synthetase, a key enzyme involved in the specific recognition of tryptophan and subsequent acylation of t-RNAtrp. Using analogs such as 7azatryptophan (7AW) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HW) and 4-fluorotryptophan (4FW) as substrates structural changes occurring upon activity can be determined.
The third particularly challenging theme is to determine the local molecular details of interacting segments of proteins. Examples include hormonal peptide-receptor complexes; protein inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes; and multi protein complexes. We have demonstrated the feasibility of biosynthetic incorporation of tryptophan analogs into proteins, and have been leaders in showing the enhanced information that such proteinsprovide.
“As a result, these tryptophan analogs are very useful in examining protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes.”
Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis :
Topics in Fluorescence Spetroscopy : Biochemical Applications
* Fluorescence and Dynamics in Proteins
* Tryptophan Phosphorescence from Proteins at Room Temperature
* Fluorescence Studies of Nucleic Acids: Dynamics, Rigidities, and Structures
* Fluorescence in Membranes
* Fluorescence and Immunodiagnostic Methods
*** Microparticle Fluorescence and Energy Transfer
More polar than phenylalanine.
* Strongly absorbs ultraviolet light.
Known as an INDOLE structure.
ReferencesFrederick Kasten, (1992), ÒFluorescent Probes used in Molecular Biology and
BiotechnologyÓ Ch. 1-2
Henry Baur et al., (1979) ÒInstrumental AnalysisÓ pp.243-246
Lorgen & Sims, et al. personal communication